the caucasian one is consolidated around eastern anatolia and dont penetrate towards the west due to mountains covering the region.
In other regions we mainly get it from balkanlar. "Balkanlardan gelen soğuk hava dalgası" cold winds hailing from balkans is even a memetic term now. >Wouldn't think that.
This is one of the instances my english fail me, you don't believe it or rather you didn't think like it before?
As for our climate here is a short summary.
Eastern Black Sea Region:
You'll see the mountains are paralel towards the sea, so there is no gap so it's a mild climate as regular rain clouds and overally humid climate can not penetrate the mountains, so allmost all of the rain clouds coming from black sea is consolidated in there. There is regular rain in eastern black sea, temperature and humididty differences across the seasons is lowest in Turkey. The behind mountains are very different from coastal black sea, complete different weather, it's more arid, colder in winter, much similar to steppe climate.
Western Black Sea:
Same though there is a gap in the foremost west part of it, so it's like eastern black sea with less steroids.
Aegean Coast mountains which extend perpendicular to the coast indented coast to coast, which is a type of cross. So both warm and mild weather of aegan sea and cold winds from balkanlar is able to penetrate, as the mountains are not parallel towards the coast. Unlike black sea, climate difference between coast and innerlands are minimum due to the way mountains stands towards the sea.
The mountains are similar to black sea, the hot weather that comes from arabian peninsula and mild climate from mediterranean sea, cannot pass through the mountains. No snow, unless you go to mountains, even then there is no regular snow in there. It's hot and humid, though in late autmn and winter it's okay. The nomadic Türks use/used this place as kışlak, a winter residence as winter is mild here.
Even today there are handful of yörüks(nomadic Türks) here because getting warm is more tedious than getting cool and chilly.
Steppe climate, cold in winter, dry and hot in summer. The aegan sea and marmara sea cannot affect here enough as it's too far, but cold winds of balkans can.
South east Anatolia:
The region is surrounded by mountains but inner part is relatively flat. It's too hot during summer, the surrounding mountains and hills prevent the got winds of arabian peninsula getting through so the hot weather is rather consolidated in there.
Not much to say, kinda cold because it's rather north and mountainious.
Kinda mix of both western black sea climate and aegan climate.It's closer to aegan one I think.