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DIY, Modular, Open source Laptop Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:55:14 [Preview] No. 10163
Laptop form factor open source hardware design, built from off the shelf components for DIY, modular, open source computing.

CPU, RAM, graphics: 1x single board computer
FSB, ports: 2x powered USB hub
Battery: 1x USB powerbank, >5000 mAh, >2A
Input: 1x USB keyboard
Input: 1x USB trackpad
Storage: 1x USB flash drive
Network: 1x USB WiFi dongle
Audio: 1x USB sound card/headset
Display: 1x USB powered HDMI monitor
Case: 3D printed or DIY glued wooden case

Features:
-Completely modular, customizable, upgradeable and repairable
-User serviceable by all users
-Universal, modular battery and charger. Can swap battery when depleted
-Low cost
-Completely open source

Suggestions for the display? It is the least commonly available component. USB DisplayLink would be more convenient, but it is not open source.


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:55:25 [Preview] No. 10164 del
this could be my next project, thanks anon


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:55:36 [Preview] No. 10165 del
is that even possable


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:55:46 [Preview] No. 10166 del
not sure how efficient such pile of craps would be.

I'd rather use cheap Chromebook after nuking blobs.


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:55:57 [Preview] No. 10167 del
>>10166
lately i see a lot of talk about chromebooks, what's up with that? are they that compatible with linux? here in EU i never hear anyone talk about them


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:56:08 [Preview] No. 10168 del
>>10167
They ship with Linux. ChromeOS is a GNU/Linux distro (Android is Linux, but no GNU).

All Chromebooks support running a proper distro with some chroot magic (crouton), and many of them support replacing ChromeOS completely.

They have a hardware switch to enable a "don't blame us if you break it" mode, which is a really nice way to give security and freedom.

They all come with Coreboot, and one of them even supports Libreboot so you don't need BIOS blobs.

ChromeOS is shit, but the hardware is nice.


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:56:18 [Preview] No. 10169 del
>>10168

if only ARM releases Mali gpu stack as free software, there won't be reasons for people to buy x86 based crappy consumer grade laptops.

the kernel side code for mali gpu (not so important. just helps talking to device, DMA and stuffs) is GPLed but you won't find it in mainline source tree as user space tools to compile shaders and stuffs are proprietary software.

So right now my Asus c201 doesn't have hw accelerated graphics, only slow frame buffer device which is ok as long as I stick to just programming stuffs and ssh with light web browsing.

I am also trying to port openbsd to it on spare time. netbsd and freebsd can boot in most rockchip development boards but getting chrome book's embedded controller right and reimplementing linux frame buffer for real chromebook is sort of challenging.


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:56:29 [Preview] No. 10170 del
(90.54 KB 1056x816 diydiagram.png)
Completed component layout diagram

>>10164
Also use a USB powerbank with passthrough. Male to female USB, RCA and ethernet cables can be used to move the ports from the adapter to the exterior of the case. Try not to use the Raspberry Pi, since it needs proprietary blobs to boot. Total cost should be less than 150 USD.

>>10165
Yes, it has been done. http://www.instructables.com/id/Pi-Berry-Laptop-The-Classic-DIY-laptop/

>>10166
Chromebooks suffer from critical flaws.
* They need to be BIOS flashed just to boot other linux distros, and then they need a hardware mod to change the default boot option.
* Hardware compatibility is poor with things like the laptop keyboard and touchpad not working by default on certain kernels.
* This is not to mention the proprietary firmware of the Intel processors used.

If you thought Chromebooks were a cheap or easy way to obtain a Linux laptop, you are in for a surprise.


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:56:40 [Preview] No. 10171 del
>>10170

>BIOS flashed
ugh, no.

recent Chromebooks use coreboot booting signed u-boot payload whether it's x86 based one or arm based one. by default it only accepts google signed u-boot images but you can disable this feature anytime in chromeos's terminal.

>hw compatibility

not really. Debian will work out of box as one of their dev invested some time on getting his chromebook working correctly.

and when it comes to kernel version choice, you should just stick to mainline linux(of Linus)or use google maintained ones on their tree. normal users shouldn't really care about the exact numbering of their kernel as google will backport almost everything from mainline and Linus accepted most necessary patches from google to his tree.

The only issue is Mali. Mainline linux only have Mali frame buffer support (enough for pretty printing initial console)not full DMA for OpenGL support.

I use gentoo and I did not have that much trouble getting Chromebook keyboard and pad working correctly.

> muh firmware is blob
please don't be that guy. if it's running inside of processor not your kernel it's not fair to call them blobs.

if you are one of those RMS tinfoil follower buy ARM based one. ARM cortex doesn't need any firmware to be loaded.


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:56:50 [Preview] No. 10172 del
>>10170
I challenge you

compile Firefox while watching Chinese cartoon on SoC's video decoder while torrenting things over wireless dongle

and you'll learn to read USB standard b4 wasting money


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:57:01 [Preview] No. 10173 del
* Add USB SATA adapter to connect SATA hard drives
* Add USB disc drive to read and write optical discs
* For VGA or DVI output, add HDMI-VGA or HDMI-DVI converter
* Can add arbitrarily many USB flash drives in RAID 0 to increase read and write speed
* Could possibly chain USB powerbanks with passthrough in series to combine capacity

>>10172

Single Board Computers currently match Pentium 4 performance at 2-3% of the TDP, for example the Banana Pi M2 ($30) has a quad core ARMv7 with 1 GB DDR3 RAM. It can easily do all of that while also serving HTTP and running zdoom.

SBC: Banana Pi M2 ($30)
FSB: USB hub, 4 ports, powered ($5)
USB ports: USB hub ($5)
Battery: USB powerbank, 10000 mAh 2A, passthrough ($5)
Input: USB mini keyboard ($10), USB trackpad ($10)
Storage: 16 GB MicroSD ($10)
Network: Builtin WiFi ($0)
Audio: USB sound card ($5)
Display: Elecrow HDMI Display Monitor 5 Inch ($38) (Low end)
Display: GAEMS M155 Performance Gaming Monitor ($169.99) (High end)
Case: Small briefcase ($10)

Total cost: $123 (Low end), $254.99 (High end)

For even higher performance, the Banana Pi M3 ($55) is octo core ARMv7 with 2 GB LPDDR3.

USB 2.0 High Speed throughput is 480 Mbps, which is more than enough for 802.11g at 52 Mbps, even combined with SATA HDD at 240 Mbps.

>>10171

It does not matter whether the hardware is good or bad if you cannot use it the way you want.

If installing FreeBSD or GalliumOS requires flashing the BIOS, and flashing the BIOS requires a hardware modification, and hardware modification voids the warranty, then the hardware is shit.

https://wiki.galliumos.org/Hardware_Compatibility


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:57:12 [Preview] No. 10174 del
>>10173
>flashing the bios

>>10173 explicitly mentioned 'google's stock coreboot can boot any uboot image' and you keep dangling to your straw man version of chromebook that voids warranty? checked

>>10172 I was ranting about usb latency & linux kernel IPI contention and you talk about theoretical throughput calculated on raw input/output from two end points? checked

whatever you say op.

it's your money and time after all.


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:57:22 [Preview] No. 10175 del
>>10174
>you keep dangling to your straw man version of chromebook that voids warranty? checked

https://chrx.org/

chrx

Install Linux onto your Chromebook. Dual-boot alongside ChromeOS for maximum flexibility.

compatibility

chromebooks
status CPU family notes
✅ Intel Haswell Firmware update available
✅ Intel Broadwell Firmware update recommended
✅ Intel Skylake Firmware update recommended
✅ Intel Bay Trail Firmware update required
✅ Intel Braswell Firmware update required
❓ Intel Sandy/Ivy Bridge Requires SeaBIOS with Legacy Boot capability
❓ Intel Pineview Requires SeaBIOS with Legacy Boot capability
❌ ARM ARM support is very unlikely

A firmware update is required on Bay Trail and Braswell to install any distro by chrx.

>I was ranting about usb latency & linux kernel IPI contention and you talk about theoretical throughput calculated on raw input/output from two end points?

That is interesting. How did you determine theoretical USB performance without considering theoretical throughput?

Do you believe that running a distro from a USB flash drive is impossible? If also using USB peripherals?


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:57:33 [Preview] No. 10176 del
>>10175
>>10175
>muh intel

I am typing this very post in shitty Chinese board based chromebook so what are you trying to prove?

that you never worked on arm devices?

https://www.community.arm.com/graphics/b/documents/posts/linux-on-chromebook-with-arm-mali-gpu

https://wiki.debian.org/InstallingDebianOn/Asus/C201

>muh usb runs fasta than copper substrate

usb sends command and control data through same line.

You can't have 480 Mbps purely for data. at maximum it would be something between 400 Mbps to 300 Mbps (for usb 2.0) for SINGLE connection at BEST(i.e. it's still theoretical value).

usb 2.0 defines half duplex connection unlike usb 3.0, meaning data can only flow in one direction at a time. directly implying you should not glue your components with webs of usb cables.

Even if your os only talks to single device, you will not reach your dream goal of 480 Mbps. NAND is bottleneck for flash drives and controller logic will dictate the speed of access to HDD.

if you work in my office and make raid 1 system out of external hard drives talking over usb, I'll shoot you on sight.

tails or other shitty linux stick works because it runs on proper boards where components talk over bridges.


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:57:44 [Preview] No. 10177 del
(30.03 KB 300x250 brighter .png)
>>10176
>>10175

http://www.cypress.com/file/88486
http://www.cypress.com/file/139866

>There are several reasons why your device will never be able to use all of this bandwidth. First of all, the USB bus is shared among several users. Even if you are plugged into different ports on the motherboard, you are probably sharing the same host controller as all of the other devices on the bus, so your device is sharing the USB bus bandwidth with all of the other devices.

>Second, USB is a packetized protocol where longer blocks of data are divided into 512-byte packets. Each packet contains a header identifying the packet contents, and a CRC at the end of the packet for data integrity. Each packet also requires an ACK from the other side of the link. Start of Frame (SOF) packets are sent every 125 uSec (microframe) to maintain timing on the bus. The net effect of this is that the theoretical maximum bandwidth of USB is 13 bulk packets per microframe, or 53,248,000 bytes/second. Even this limit is not achievable with current host controllers, which can receive 10 bulk packets/microframe or send 8 bulk packets/microframe.

>500mA – This is the absolute maximum power allowed under the USB spec

don't listen to haters op!

bright future awaits you!


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:57:55 [Preview] No. 10178 del
There are also x86 SBCs out there. Many of them also have LVDS connector for display, which opens up some options with used panels from laptop PCs (although I'm not sure everything is compatible).

Just look into embedded pico-ITX

I want to build a UMPC with Pentium N 3710 (Braswell) based pico-ITX board. Although this would be relatively expensive it has a much more capable GPU than any of the ARM stuff out there. x86 and real OpenGL/DirectX acceleration should make a lot of neat things simple to achieve.

Also for rapid prototyping of enclosure, forget wood unless you're really good at working with that. Look into Sintra PVC foam board. I've worked with it in the past as enclosures for power supplies and other projects. That was with 6mm thick sheets. Really easy to work with, does not take a lot of tools. You basically would want a T-Square or Triangle and some sharp knife or razor to score with then break it. Anywhere that you need to attach a component through a screw hole you would just drill a very small pilot hole and use a small wood screw. The PVC foam board can be glued together with a wide variety of adhesives but thin cyanoacrylate works better than most. That's just regular super glue.

I'm probably going with 3mm this time considering the UMPC will be small I think that's sufficient, although it will be built in layers that are glued together, thicker than 3mm in many spots.

If done properly this could have excellent results and be achievable without spending a lot of time learning 3D modeling or CAD. Or having to spend all that time designing a 3D model and send it off for printing not quite 100% sure if it's going to all fit together just right.

I'm still looking for a good option for the hinges, friction hinges can be surprisingly expensive.


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:58:06 [Preview] No. 10179 del
>>10178
A few companies that manufacture and sell x86 pico-ITX SBCs (and have prices and ordering available on their site):

(Israeli company, but if you're buying Intel that's irrelevant)
www.solid-run.com/

(DFI is a Taiwanese company that has always made very high quality motherboards. They used to be famous for excellent gaming motherboards during the socket 939 era, but these days focus on industrial and embedded stuff)
www.dfi.com/products/productList.html?id=132


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:58:16 [Preview] No. 10180 del
Specifications for >>10173
CPU: 1 Ghz A31S ARM Cortex-A7 Quad-Core
GPU: PowerVR SGX544MP2
RAM: 1 GB DDR3
Display: M155 GAEMS 15.5" LED TN LCD, 1366 x 768
Network: 10/100/1000 Ethernet, WiFi 802.11b/g/n
Battery length: 5 hours (10000 mAh @ 10 W)
Ports: 7x USB 2.0, 2x 3.5mm Audio output, 1x 3.5mm Audio input, 1x HDMI
Weight: <2 kg
Dimensions: 38cm x 24cm x 3cm (folded)
Total cost: $254.99

>>10176
>I am typing this very post in shitty Chinese board based chromebook so what are you trying to prove?

If you used the linked chipset, then with nonfree wireless and video drivers?

>tails or other shitty linux stick works because it runs on proper boards where components talk over bridges.

This is trivial to benchmark.

Add to a USB hub 1) USB flash drive 2) USB WiFi adapter 3) USB keyboard 4) USB mouse. Attach USB hub to any computer. Boot computer from USB flash drive. Transfer file using USB WiFi adapter onto USB flash drive.

Now repeat test with USB components directly attached to computer.

>500mA – This is the absolute maximum power allowed under the USB spec

Use a USB Y cable or a USB hub that can provide more than 500 mA per port.

http://elinux.org/RPi_Powered_USB_Hubs


>>10178

LVDS is an excellent option, if the LVDS driver were separate from the SBC, so that the CPU, RAM and GPU could be changed independently from the display.

Due to its inherent inefficiency, the only real reason to use X86 is compatibility with proprietary software and drivers, as FOSS can be easily recompiled for any architecture.

Consider that more computing power means more energy required, which also means more heat. The current design does not need thermal management because it is low power.

One possible, but dubious benefit of using X86 may be to allow the use of proprietary USB 3.0 DisplayLink monitors.

Excellent suggestion about using PVC foam board. The electronic components of the design are chosen for being commonly available and simple enough for everyone to assemble. So the case should be as easy to build too.

Any recommendations of brand for cyanoacrylate?

Hinges should not be needed in a UMPC design, unless it is a clamshell. If it is, then a friction hinge is not needed, since there is only one open position.


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:58:27 [Preview] No. 10181 del
The following posts will describe each component in detail, starting with the USB powerbank.

There are several good reasons to use a USB powerbank to power the DIY laptop. One is that it integrates both the charge controller and power supply into the battery. Another is that it is cheap and easy to replace. The last is that it contains enough energy to power a laptop for several hours.

10000 mAh is sufficient for 2.5 hours of operation at 20 W, which is the maximum power drawn by a 10 W SBC, 10 W display and peripherals. 20000 mAh is sufficient for 5 hours, 40000 mAh for 10 hours and so on. If the average power use is closer to 10 W, the operation time is doubled.

Most powerbanks can provide the 5V 2A required by single board computers. A few more can provide another 5V 1A output, or even 5V 2A. This second output can be used to power a 5V 2A display.

For reference: Limefuel BLAST L150X 15000mAh 4x5V/2.1A (5V/4.2A max) w/passthrough ($35.99)

If one powerbank does not provide enough power, then multiple powerbanks can be used. One powerbank can be connected to the SBC, another to the display and so on. They can be charged simultaneously from a single USB cable by using a USB female to 2x micro USB male splitter, or USB Y cable.

Also choose a USB powerbank with passthrough charging. This feature allows recharging the powerbank while drawing power from it. This feature is needed to continue using the laptop while it is charging.

Charging USB powerbanks is very easy. USB AC adapters and USB cables are cheap and easy to find. Any USB port can be used for charging if needed. USB powerbanks are also very easy to charge off the grid by solar panel, handcrank generator or thermoelectric generator. Any source of 5V will charge a powerbank, even if only 100 mA.

The most important feature of a USB powerbank is that it can be charged separately from the laptop. This allows swapping discharged powerbanks for charged ones, which instantly recharges the DIY laptop. The discharged powerbank can then be recharged by any USB charger.

With enough USB chargers and USB powerbanks, it is impossible to ever run out of charge. Passthrough is also not necessary on the swapped powerbanks.

The best example of this configuration would be a solar USB charger connected to a USB powerbank. When needed, swap it with the DIY laptop's USB powerbank. When the new powerbank is depleted, the previous one will be fully recharged. If the DIY laptop also has an always connected secondary powerbank with passthrough, then there is no need to even shutdown when swapping discharged powerbanks.

The only flaws of using a USB powerbank as battery is that battery level must be checked manually by reading powerbank and the charge time of a powerbank is proportional to its capacity.

It is possible to make DIY USB powerbanks, or to use other battery types such as NiMH, lead acid or alkaline.

It is also possible to use alternate forms of energy storage, such as a supercapacitor, fuel cell, flywheel, compressed air or even radiothermoelectric generator. Each one has advantages over batteries, but are more expensive.


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:58:37 [Preview] No. 10182 del
Display: 1x USB powered HDMI monitor

No computer actually needs a video display, as blind computer users demonstrate, but having one is much better than not.

The easiest and most reliable display for the DIY Modular Open Source Laptop would a USB powered portable HDMI monitor. This is the only option that is plug and play in both power and video cable, with no driver installation needed. Just connect the HDMI cable to the SBC and the USB cable to the 5V 2A USB powerbank.

For reference:
GAEMS M155 Performance Gaming Monitor 15.5" LED TN LCD, 1366 x 768 ($169.99)
GeChic 1503H 15.6" IPS 1080p Portable Monitor ($349.99)
GeChic 1002 10.1" Portable Touchscreen Monitor IPS 1280x800 ($245.99)
Elecrow HDMI Display Monitor 5 Inch 800x480 TFT ($38)

The next best option is a 12V portable LCD monitor. These are commonly available as security camera monitors, photography field monitors, portable TVs, LCD panels for SBCs. These will need either a 12V 1A power supply or 5V 3A to 12V 1A DC to DC converter ($5), both of which can be provided by USB Type C powerbanks. An HDMI to VGA or HDMI to AV converter ($5) may be needed if the monitor has no HDMI input.

Another option would be to use a LVDS controller board ($30) with a laptop LCD panel (>$70) and 5V 3A to 12V 1A DC to DC converter. This is the cheapest and most flexible option, but is significantly more complicated than the previous options and may need soldering.

The last option would be to make a DIY display. With enough soldering and programming, it could be possible to create seven segment character displays from LED arrays.

A fresnel lens ($5) can be used to cheaply enlarge the size of any of the displays.

Features such as touchscreen, IPS, 4K or OLED can be found in off the shelf portable monitors. You choose the monitor size, resolution, type and refresh rate and can easily hotswap displays. A USB powered picoprojector is also an option.

USB 3.0 DisplayLink monitors will not work with ARM SBCs, because the driver is proprietary and for x86 only. The video quality is poor compared to an HDMI monitor anyways.


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:58:48 [Preview] No. 10183 del
>>10169
>I am also trying to port openbsd to it on spare time
Tell me how that goes. From what I know, armv7 on OpenBSD has no Xenocara support.. which is a shame. Would love to see a fully-featured OpenBSD C201.


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:58:59 [Preview] No. 10184 del
>Tfw you were born just in the right time to see PERSONAL MICROCOMPUTING come back


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:59:09 [Preview] No. 10185 del
In the future, anyone who can build a desktop will also be able to build a laptop. This is the entire point of a free hardware project like this.

Free Hardware is not blobbed nor tivoized, not backdoored at the software, firmware and hardware level, and not designed to fail as soon as warranty expires.

Free Hardware running Free Software is the only solution to the modern craptop.


Anonymous 07/09/2017 (Sun) 23:59:20 [Preview] No. 10186 del
CPU, RAM, GPU: 1x single board computer

A Single Board Computer provides every component needed to build laptop, except for battery, display, keyboard and case, each of which can be added separately.

Single Board Computers provide CPU, RAM, GPU, motherboard and some other integrated features on a single board. They are full desktop computer system that is sufficiently small and low power consuming to be used as a mobile, DIY laptop. They are also very low cost (<$50).

The most important feature of Single Board Computers is that there are models that are fully open source. It is possible to build a fully functional laptop with Free Software only, including free firmware, wireless and 3D video acceleration drivers. It is even possible to get SBCs with open source hardware designs.

For reference:

Single Board Computers with free 3D video acceleration (Etnaviv)
Nitrogen6X ($225): Quad core ARM A9 @ 1 Ghz, Freescale i.MX6, Vivante GC2000, 2 GB DDR3, best option, compatible with mainline kernels
Nitrogen6_MAX ($299): Quad core ARM A9 @ 1 Ghz, Freescale i.MX6, Vivante GC3000, 4 GB DDR3, faster Nitrogen6X
Wandboard QuadPLUS ($139): Quad core ARM A9 @ 1 Ghz, Freescale i.MX6, Vivante GC3000, 2 GB DDR3, cheaper version of Nitrogen6_MAX, not mainline

Open source hardware Single Board Computers
BeagleBone Black ($55): Single core ARM A8 @ 1 GHz, TI Sitara AM335x, PowerVR SGX530, 512 MB DDR3, fully open source except GPU, mainline compatible, https://github.com/beagleboard/beaglebone-black
OlinuXino LIME2 (€45): Dual core ARM A7 @ 1 GHz, Allwinner A20, Mali 400, 1 GB DDR3, mainline compatible, https://github.com/OLIMEX/OLINUXINO/tree/master/HARDWARE/A20-OLinuXino-LIME2
Radxa Rock Pro ($97.75): Quad core ARM A9 @ 1.6 Ghz, Rockchip RK3188, Mali-400, 2 GB DDR3, fast open source hardware SBC, mainline compatible, no gigabit LAN, https://github.com/radxa/oshw
Radxa Rock2 Square ($139.90): Quad core ARM A17 @ 1.8 Ghz, RK3288, 4 GB DDR3, 5V 3A, fastest open source hardware SBC, same SoC as Asus C201, https://github.com/radxa/oshw

Do not use Raspberry Pi, because it needs a proprietary bootloader to boot.

Low power consumption means low battery usage and low heat, allowing the use of USB powerbanks as the battery and a fanless design. All reference SBCs draw 5V 2A unless noted, which is the maximum provided by a USB powerbank.

Vivante GPUs have the open source 3D driver Etnaviv in mainline Linux 4.5+ that is fast enough for Quake 3.

Features:
-Free firmware
-Can freely overclock CPU, RAM, GPU
-GPIO ports
-Easy to upgrade, just swap the Single Board Computer for a new one
-Easy OS installation, just write OS image to microSD card or USB flash drive
-Can use HDMI splitter to drive additional displays, but better and cheaper option would be to use a second SBC connected using TightVNC over gigabit LAN to drive a second display
-Can create beowulf cluster of SBCs connected over gigabit LAN and powered by USB to increase computational power and provide more ports


Anonymous 11/13/2017 (Mon) 09:51:26 [Preview] No. 11748 del
Charger

The DIY Modular Open Source Laptop is designed to be charged by any combination of solar panel, handcrank generator, USB AC adapter, USB car charger, USB port or thermoelectric generator. Unlike most rechargeable electronics, each charger can charge the USB powerbank battery of the DIY laptop seperately from the DIY laptop. This flexible and modular charging ensures the DIY laptop never runs out of energy, yet never needs to be charged either.

For reference
USB solar charger: SOKOO 22W 5V 2-Port USB Portable Foldable Solar Charger ($55)
Handcrank generator: K-TOR Pocket Socket Hand Crank Generator Portable Power Supply 10 Watts 120 Volts ($60)
Pedal generator: K-tor Power Box 20 Watt Pedal Generator ($200)
Thermoelectric generator: Camping Stove Thermoelectric Generator TEG Power - Devil Watt 15 Watt ($304)

Each reference charger can provide the 5V 2A needed to charge a USB powerbank at full speed. The most convenient charger will depend on the situation.

Solar panels can provide >150 W unattended outdoors at daytime.
Handcrank or pedal generators can provide <150 W attended indoors or outdoors, day or night. Handcrank generators can be used while standing or moving, but pedal generators can be used while also using the DIY laptop.
Thermoelectric generators can provide >150 W unattended outdoors, day or night. Indoors with ventilation.
USB AC adapters can be used wherever there is AC electric grid.
USB car adapters can be used with most DC electricity sources such as 12 V car batteries or six 1.5 V AA batteries in series. USB car adapters can also convert DC from solar panels, thermoelectric generators, handcrank generators, DC wind or hydroelectric turbines into 5V DC for charging the DIY laptop.
Any USB port can be used to charge the DIY laptop if no other charger is available.

The main power source is designed to be either AC adapter or USB solar charger, with pedal generator as backup. With enough USB powerbanks and USB solar chargers, the DIY Modular Open Source laptop can be run completely from solar power.

The DIY laptop is designed to be convenient to charge by solar power. The DIY laptop does not need to be placed outside, nor directly connected to a solar panel at all. To charge, just disconnect the USB powerbank from the laptop, connect it to the USB solar charger, and then place both outside in direct sunlight. Wait 4 to 8 hours until powerbank is fully charged, then disconnect powerbank from solar charger and reconnect to laptop.

If possible, use another USB powerbank while the other is being charged. Once it is charged, swap powerbanks and recharge the depleted one. Additional solar chargers and powerbanks can be used for more energy. With enough energy, the DIY laptop can be used day and night continuously with need to shutdown.

If needed, the USB AC adapter can directly substitute for the USB solar charger. The pedal generator can be used during blackouts or cloudy weather. The thermoelectric generator is only used if you cannot use the pedal generator.



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