A lot of it. The very fact that Lusophone America is unified is already an absurd and unlikely historical anomaly.
When the Portuguese royal family ran away like a bunch of pussies from the Big Blue Blob's expansion, they immediately worked on establishing a strong central government in Rio de Janeiro. This began a century of political struggle between conservatives loyal to the Crown and liberals fighting for decentralization or even secession (see my hastily drawn map). Thus, even before independence, Pernambuco already tried to split. There was no such thing as a Brazilian nation or identity, each state's elites had not yet been fully bribed into obeying the central government and the common people had more loyalty to their state than towards any central leaders half a continent away. This became clear when Pedro I declared independence and several states chose to remain under Portugal; only a short independence war, limited by both sides' bankruptcy, brought them under Rio de Janeiro's fold.
A few years later, Pernambuco once again tried to secede, this time carrying along several other states under the Equator Confederation (see flag). They were repressed once again, with significant British aid. On an unrelated note, the eternal Anglo had its hand through all of this; as payment for the Royal Navy's protection during their little transatlantic trip, the Portuguese Royal Family gave British products in Brazil a smaller tariff rate than Portuguese products themselves!
Pedro I's unpopularity and his dynastic ambitions back in the Old World led him to abdicate the throne in 1831, leaving behind a five-year old son and a very weak administrative structure covering half a continent. In the power vacuum, liberals and conservatives squabbled for control and the country disintegrated: power was devolved to provincial elites, liberals repeatedly launched armed revolts, several states tried to secede and a military force controlled by local power -the National Guard- was formed, strengthening a tradition of feudal-like paramilitary force that to this day lives on whenever gunmen are hired by landowners.
By this point, the country was on the brink of balkanizing into the same fate of Hispanic America; only Pedro II's premature rise to power normalized the situation. Pedro II successfully integrated the local elites, preventing any further attempts at secession, but the centralism vs federalism debate continued between conservatives and liberals.
By a few decades later, however, Pedro II has lost all of his support in the elites, including the Church and the Army, but -this is where regional politics once again come into play- also three regional elites:>Ancient sugar-producing elites in the Northeast, now angry with Abolition>Traditional slave labor-based coffe-exporting elites in the Paraíba Valley (Rio and São Paulo)>New immigrant labor-based coffe-exporting elites further out in São Paulo, who had republican tendencies ever since their rise
The new republican government was initially headed by Positivist army officers with centralist leanings, but in just a few years power passed to the rural elites who enforced their ideal of a decentralized republic. Until 1930, the political struggle was fought inside each state's Republican Party and between the states, with São Paulo and Minas Gerais holding the most power.